Tunneling tactics

Obtaining raw bytes

When some value needs to be processed as both a parsed object and raw bytes, both of these can be obtained using RawCopy. You can build from either the object or raw bytes as well.

>>> RawCopy(Byte).parse(b"\xff")
>>> RawCopy(Byte).build(dict(data=b"\xff"))
>>> RawCopy(Byte).build(dict(value=255))


When little endianness is needed, either use fields like Int*l or swap bytes of an arbitrary field:

Int24ul <--> ByteSwapped(Int24ub) <--> BytesInteger(3, swapped=True)
>>> Int24ul.build(0x01020304)

When bits within each byte need to be swapped, there is another wrapper:

>>> Bitwise(Bytes(8)).parse(b"\x01")
>>> BitsSwapped(Bitwise(Bytes(8))).parse(b"\x01")

Working with bytes subsets

Greedy* constructs consume as much data as possible. This is convenient when building from a list of unknown length but becomes a problem when parsing it back and the list needs to be separated from following data. This can be achieved either by prepending an element count (see PrefixedArray) or by prepending a byte count:

>>> Prefixed(VarInt, GreedyRange(Int32ul)).parse(b"\x08abcdefgh")
[1684234849, 1751606885]
>>> PrefixedArray(VarInt, Int32ul).parse(b"\x02abcdefgh")
[1684234849, 1751606885]

Note that VarInt encoding should be preferred because it is both compact and never overflows.

Optionally, length field can include its own size. Then the length field must be of fixed size.

Compression and checksuming

Data can be checksummed easily. Note that checksum field does not need to be Bytes, and lambda may return an integer or otherwise.

import hashlib
d = Struct(
    "fields" / RawCopy(Struct(
        "a" / Byte,
        "b" / Byte,
    "checksum" / Checksum(Bytes(64), lambda data: hashlib.sha512(data).digest(), this.fields.data),
data = d.build(dict(fields=dict(value=dict(a=1,b=2))))
# returned b'\x01\x02\xbd\xd8\x1a\xb23\xbc\xebj\xd23\xcd\x18qP\x93 \xa1\x8d\x035\xa8\x91\xcf\x98s\t\x90\xe8\x92>\x1d\xda\x04\xf35\x8e\x9c~\x1c=\x16\xb1o@\x8c\xfa\xfbj\xf52T\xef0#\xed$6S8\x08\xb6\xca\x993'

Also can be compressed easily. Supported encodings include zlib/gzip/bzip2/lzma and entire codecs module. When parsing, entire stream is consumed. When building, puts compressed bytes without marking the end. This construct should be used with Prefixed() or entire stream.

Compressed(GreedyBytes, "zlib")
Prefixed(VarInt, Compressed(GreedyBytes, "zlib"))
Compressed(Struct(...), "zlib")